The Burning Of Coal Contributed To The Mass Extinction Of The End of The Permian

The burning of coal contributed to the mass extinction of the end of the Permian
The burning of coal contributed to the mass extinction of the end of the Permian


The burning of coal contributed to the mass extinction of the end of the Permian. An international team of geologists has found the first direct evidence that a volcanic eruption in the southern part of the Siberian trap area 252 million years ago led to the massive burning of coal and vegetation.

Elkins-Tanton et al demonstrate that the amount and composition of organic materials that interact with magma in the Siberian trap region can explain the global signal of carbon isotopes and possibly carry out massive end-Permian removal. Image credit: Margaret Wener / University of Cincinnati Creative Services.

Elkins-Tanton et al demonstrate that the amount and composition of organic materials that interact with magma in the Siberian trap region can explain the global signal of carbon isotopes and possibly carry out massive end-Permian removal. Image credit: Margaret Wener / University of Cincinnati Creative Services.

The final Permian extinction, also known as the Permian-Tricyclic extinction event and the Great Dye, is the most severe mass extinction on Earth that peaked about 252.3 million years ago. The catastrophe killed approximately 96% of all marine species and 70% of terrestrial vertebrate species on the planet over thousands of years.

The calculation of seawater temperatures suggests that at the peak of extinction, Earth experienced warm global warming, with temperatures in the Mediterranean Sea exceeding 40 ° C (104 ° F). One of the possible causes of this phenomenon, and one of the longest hypotheses is that the massive burning of coal caused catastrophic global warming, which in turn was disastrous for life.

To search for evidence to support this hypothesis, Arizona State University professor Lindy Elkins-Tanton and her colleagues looked at the Siberian trap region, where magma and lava from volcanic events were known to cause a combination vegetation and coal. Was burned

They focused on volcanic rocks created by explosive volcanic eruptions and collected more than 500 kg of samples. “We found nothing but a volcanic river that covers the river for hundreds of miles. It was geographically surprising, ”said Professor Elkins-Tanton.

As the samples were analyzed, the authors began to see strange fragments in the volcano that looked like burned wood and, in some cases, burned coal. The additional fieldwork replaced even more sites with charcoal, coal, and even some viscous rocks rich in organic matter. "Our study shows that magmas from the Siberian trap infiltrated and incorporated carbon and organic material," said Professor Elkins-Tanton.

This gives us direct evidence that magma also burned large amounts of carbon and organic material during the eruption and that the changes in the final Permian extinction bear striking similarities to what is happening on Earth today, including hydrocarbons and includes the burning coal, sulfur to acid rain and even halocarbons that destroy ozone.

"Seeing these similarities gives us additional motivation to take action now, and also to understand how Earth responds to such long-term changes," said Professor Elkins-Tanton. The findings were published in the journal Geology.



The eROSITA X-ray telescope captures the hot and energetic universe
The eROSITA X-ray telescope captures the hot and energetic universe


The eROSITA X-ray telescope captures the hot and energetic universe. A new image of the entire sky from the ERSITA X-ray telescope at the Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma (SRG) space observatory includes more than a million objects, about half of which are new to astronomers.

This EROSITA X-ray telescope image shows the energy universe. As eROSITA scans the sky, the energy of the collected photons is measured with an accuracy of up to 2% - 6%. To produce this image, in which the entire sky is projected on an ellipse (the so-called atoff projection) with the center of the Milky Way in the middle and moving the body of our galaxy horizontally, the photons are colored. Coded energy (red for energy 0.3–0.6 kV, green for 0.6–1 kV, blue for 1–2.3 kV).

The diffuse red glow of the galactic plane is the emission of hot gas in the vicinity of the solar system (local bubble). Throughout the plane, dust and gases absorb lower-energy X-ray photons, allowing only high-energy emitting sources to be seen, and their color appears blue in the image.

Hot gas near the galactic center, visible in green and yellow, Carrie traces the history of the most energetic processes in the life of the Milky Way, such as supernova explosions, the conduction of gas sources from aircraft, and possibly. The blast from the past of the now dormant supermassive black hole in the center of the Milky Way.

Drilling through this turbulent, diffuse, hot medium, there are hundreds of thousands of X-ray sources, appearing primarily white in the image, and evenly distributed across the sky. Among them, distant active galactic nuclei appear as point sources.

Whereas galaxy clusters are revealed as X-ray nebulae. In total, approximately one million X-ray sources have been detected in this image. Image credit: Jeremy Sanders, Herman Brunner and the eSASS team / Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics / Eugene Churazov and Marat Gilfanov, IKI.

"The image of the entire sky completely changes the way we see the energetic universe," said Dr. Dr., an astronomer at Planck's Mexican Institute for Extraterritorial Physics. Peter Predehl stated that he was the principal investigator for ERSITA. "We see a great expansion of wealth: the beauty of the images is really impressive."

Most of the objects in the entire EROSITA sky image are active galactic nuclei and massive galaxy clusters. It shows the composition and the peripheral medium of hot gas in the Milky Way, whose properties are important to understand the history of the construction of our galaxy.

It also reveals stars with a strong, magnetically active hot corona; Binary star consisting of neutron star, black hole, or white dwarf; And spectacular supernova remnants in our galaxies and other nearby galaxies, such as the Magellanic Clouds.



An annotated version of EROSITA All-Sky Image
An annotated version of EROSITA All-Sky Image


An annotated version of EROSITA All-Sky Image. Several main features of X-rays have been characterized, ranging from distant galaxy clusters (coma, Virgo, Fernax, Persus) to extended sources, such as supernova remnants (SNR) and nebulae, to sources of bright spots, e.g. Eg Sco X-1, the first extra-salting X-ray source to be detected.

The Vela SNR is the large Magellanic cloud in the quadrant at the lower right, the Shalley supercluster at the upper right, to the right of this image. Image credit: Jeremy Sanders, Herman Brunner and the eSASS team / Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics / Eugene Churazov and Marat Gilfanov, IKI.

"We were all eagerly waiting for the first ERSISTA map in the entire sky," said Dr. Mara Salvato also said that of the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics. "Large regions of the sky are already covered at many other wavelengths, and we now have matching X-ray data." We need these other surveys to identify X-ray sources and understand their nature.

The EROSITA image also shows rare and exotic phenomena, including many types of clients and variables, such as flares from a compact object, merger of neutron stars, and swallowing of stars by black holes. Dr. "Aerosita often sees unexpected bursts of X-rays from the sky," said Salvato.



 

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