Study: Humans Colonized Islands In Three Waves

Study Humans Colonized islands in three waves
Study: Humans Colonized islands in three waves

Study: Humans Colonized islands in three waves. An international team of researchers has sequenced and analyzed the genomes of 93 ancient Caribbean islands and found evidence of at least three distinct population dispersions in the region: two of early dispersal in the western Caribbean, one in North America. It appears to be associated with a dispersion of the previous population. ; And a third more recent wave in South America.

Illustration of one of the first settlers in the Caribbean. The Caribbean islands were one of the last human-inhabited areas in the Americas. Early archaeological evidence suggests that the first inhabitants of the Caribbean arrived about 8,000 years ago, and 5,000 years ago, they were widely dispersed. However, it is not well understood how, when and where the first settlers of the region arrived at the islands of the Antilles.

Interpretations of archaeological finds have been based largely on the history of Caribbean settlements, such as stylistic comparisons of artifacts from Caribbean sites and artifacts from the mainland. While these approaches illuminate large-scale population movements, many of the most nuanced aspects of Caribbean population history are unknown.

To fill these gaps, Catherine Nagle and colleagues at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History analyzed genome-wide data from 93 ancient Caribbean islands, excavated at 16 archaeological sites in the Caribbean, 400 to 3,200 years ago. The pieces of bone used were made. .

The analysis provided new genetic evidence for at least three different colonization events, including two initial dispersions in the western Caribbean, one of which was previously unknown and may be associated with radiation events in North America that may have been associated with populations. from Central and South America It was before diversification.

Later, South American groups expanded and new techniques, including pottery, were introduced that support earlier archaeological interpretations. "The new data gives us a fascinating insight into the early migratory history of the Caribbean," said co-author Dr Hans Schroeder, a researcher at the Globe Institute at the University of Copenhagen.

"We found evidence that the islands were inhabited and inhabited many times from different parts of the American continent." Large bodies of water are traditionally considered barriers to humans, and ancient fishing-hunter communities are not usually considered great boaters, Ngele said. "Our results continue to challenge that view, as they suggest that there were repeated interactions between the islands and the mainland."

"The new data supports our previous observations that the first inhabitants of the Caribbean were biologically and culturally diverse, adding resolution to this ancient period in our history," co-author Dr. Said Yadira Chinique de Aramas, a researcher at the University of Winnipeg. . The team's results also revealed distinct genetic differences between the ancestors of the region's ancestors and newcomers to South America.

Despite centuries of coexistence, scientists have found almost no evidence of penetration, leading to interesting new questions about their interactions. Researchers at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History were co-authors of Drs. Cosimo Post stated: "Although there were different groups in the Caribbean at the same time, we found surprisingly little evidence between them."

"The results of this study provide another layer of data that highlights the diverse and complex nature of Colombian Caribbean societies and their connections to the American continent prior to the colonial invasion," co-author Professor Corny Hoffman, scientist. he said. Leiden University The findings were published in the journal Science.


Pre-history list of people in skull rewrite carrebean
Pre-history list of people in skull rewrite carrebean

Pre-history list of people in skull rewrite carrebean. A 1594 engraving by Christopher Columbus Theodore de Bry meets Caribbean residents in this expansion. Using the equivalent of facial recognition techniques, researchers have analyzed the skulls of early Caribbean residents and revealed some unexpected findings. One surprise was that the Caribs invaded Jamaica, Hispaniola and the Bahamas, overturning half-a-century estimates that they never made it further north than Guadeloupe.

Experts have long dismissed that Christopher Columbus' accounts of the Caribbean include describing the horrific attackers who kidnapped women and cannibal men as a myth, but new studies suggest he may be telling the truth Must have... "I was spending the right time proving Columbus wrong: when he came there were caribs in the northern Caribbean," says William Keegan, curator of Caribbean archeology at the Museum of Natural History of Florida. "We want to reinterpret everything we think."

Columbus had said that Aracus was terrorized in a peaceful manner in the modern Bahamas by terrorists, which he mistakenly described as "Khaniba", the Asian subject of Grand Khan. His Spanish heirs corrected the name of the "Carib" a few decades later, but similar sounding names prompted most archaeologists to chalk up references to the mix-up: how the Carib could have been in the Bahamas when its closest The outpost was approximately 1,000 miles to the south?

But the skull suggests that the presence of the carib in the Caribbean was far more prominent than previously attributed to Columbus' claims. A paper on the work appears in the Scientific Report …….


The researchers used 16 facial landmarks to analyze the skull
The researchers used 16 facial "landmarks" to analyze the skull

The researchers used 16 facial "landmarks" to analyze the skull, a technique that is often used as a genetic proxy. "You can tell how closely people are related to these types of measures or not," says Ross. (Credit: Ross et al. Scientific report). Previous studies relied on artifacts like tools and pottery to trace geographic origin and the movement of people across the Caribbean over time.

Adding a biological component puts the history of the field in sharp focus, says lead author Ann Ross, a professor of biological sciences at North Carolina State University. Ross used 3D facial "lands", such as the eye sockets or the length of the nose, to analyze more than 100 skulls dating from CE 800 to 1542 about size. These destinations can act as a genetic proxy for people to discover how close they are. related to each other.

Ross claims that the analysis led not only to three different groups of Caribbean people, but also to their migration routes.


Analysis of the skulls revealed groups and migrations of three different people
Analysis of the skulls revealed groups and migrations of three different people


Analysis of the skulls revealed groups and migrations of three different people. An earlier hypothesis proposed that colonists in the Caribbean include those in Florida and Panama, but the researchers found no biological evidence to support this view.

Observing ancient faces suggests that the oldest inhabitants of the Caribbean came from Yucatan, entering Cuba and the North Antilles, supporting previous hypotheses based on similarities in stone tools. The speakers of Arvac from the coast of Colombia and Venezuela migrated to Puerto Rico between 800 and 200 a. C., a trip also documented in ceramics.

However, the first inhabitants of the Bahamas and Hispaniola were not from Cuba as was commonly thought, but from the northwest of the Amazon: the Caribs. Around CE 800, they pushed north to Hispaniola and Jamaica and then the Bahamas, where they settled well until the arrival of Columbus.

"I was stumped for years because I don't have this Bahamian component," says Ross. Those remains were so important. This will change the attitudes of the people and people of the Caribbean. "For Keegan, the search leaves a puzzle to rest that has bothered him for years: why a type of pottery known as the meilacoid is the CEE 800, the 900 around Jamaica, and the 1000 in the Bahamas. It appears around

The broken red-orange ceramic pieces with different engravings and markings on them are set on a black background. Keegan was seen as a different type of pottery for years in Hampaniola, Jamaica, and the Bahamas. Now they believe it is a cultural part of a Caribbean invasion and may have originated in the Caribbean homeland of South America. (Credit: William Keegan / Florida Museum).

"Why did we find this clay pot so different from everything else? It had bothered me," he says. "It makes sense that melacoid pots combine with the expansion of the Caribbean." The sudden appearance of melacoid pottery coincides with the reorganization overview of people in the Caribbean after 1,000 years of peace, further evidence that "the Caribbean invaders were on the move," says Keegan.


Carrots were raised in the northwest Amazon
Carrots were raised in the northwest Amazon


Carrots were raised in the northwest Amazon, and archaeologists have always believed that they never expanded to the north of the West Indies. (Credit: John Gabriel Steadman). But they were cannibals: So was there any substance to the cannibalism stories? Possibly, Keegan says. Arvax and the Caribs were enemies, but they often lived side by side with occasional spaces before blood fights occurred.

"It's almost like a Hatfields and McCoys situation," Keegan says. "Maybe there was some cannibalism involved." If you need to be afraid of your enemies, this is a very good way. "They say whether it was exact or not, the European perception that the Caribbean is cannibal had a considerable influence on the history of the region.


The Spanish monarchy initially insisted that indigenous people are paid for work and treated with respect, but reversed their position after receiving reports that they refused to convert to Christianity. And ate human flesh. Keegan says, Well, if they are going to behave like this, they can be enslaved. Suddenly, all the natives from all over the Caribbean became Caribs when it came to the colonists.


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